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Syaichona Kholil Bangkalan dan Pengalaman Fana’

Penulis: Kholili Kholil

Syaichona Kholil adalah mahaguru ulama Nusantara di abad 19-20. Saking fenomenalnya, sampai-sampai para pengagumnya seringkali abai dengan warisan tasawufnya yang luar biasa. Kisah karamah beliau seringkali dianggap sebagai mujarradul qishshah (sekedar kisah). Padahal di balik kisah tersebut seringkali terselip misteri luar biasa.

Misal kisah ekstase (dalam tasawuf ekstase dikenal sebagai wajdu yang dalam makna pesantren Jawa berarti: panemu ati) yang dialami Syaichona berikut. Suatu hari Syaichona Kholil mengaji matan Nahwu dasar, Matan Jurumiyyah. Tatkala sampai dalam Bab La Linafyil Jinsi, di Jurumiyyah tertulis sebagai berikut:

بَابُ لَا ، اعْلَمْ أَنَّ لَا .. الخ

“Bab La. Ketahuilah sesungguhnya huruf la… dan seterusnya.”

Namun di luar dugaan, Syaichona justru membaca sebagai berikut:

بَابٌ لَا أَعْلَم أنَّ لَا … الخ

“Bab. Aku tidak tahu bahwa huruf la..”

Berulang-ulang beliau membaca demikian. Tidak lama kemudian beliau berkata dalam bahasa Madura, “iyeh lakar Kholil lok taoh.” (Iya, memang Kholil tidak tahu). Lalu beliau menutup kitab dan membubarkan pengajian.

Kisah ini bisa ditafsirkan bahwa Syaikhona Kholil ketika itu mengalami fase wajd (ekstase) dan sakr (mabuk) yang umum dialami oleh sufi “kelas tinggi”.  Kalimat “Kholil memang tidak tahu” merupakan sebuah kata keramat dalam dunia tasawuf-mistik. Kata seperti ini, sebagaimana dicatat oleh Carl Ernst dalam Words of Ecstasy in Sufism, juga pernah diucapkan oleh Sahal Tustari dan Khalifah Abu Bakar, yang mana nama terakhir ini oleh para sufi dianggap sebagai wali quthb pertama.

Abu Bakar memang diriwayatkan pernah berkata: ketidakmampuan untuk mengetahui merupakan pengetahuan sejati (al-‘ajzu ‘anil idraki idrakun). Konsep unknowing atau pengakuan akan ketidakmampuan untuk mengetahui merupakan tradisi mistisisme yang berkembang hampir di semua agama serta termasuk bagian dari doktrin negative path yang dilalui oleh banyak sufi besar. Kisah pengajian Jurumiyyah di atas menunjukkan bahwa Syaichona juga merambah pengalaman yang sama dengan para sufi besar.

Lalu penggunaan kalimat “Kholil tidak tahu”  bukan “saya tidak tahu” merupakan sebuah wujud syathahat atau igauan sufi yang dialami Syaichona. Syathahat dengan menghilangkan ke-aku-an ini oleh Carl Ernst dianggap berasal dari tafsir Jakfar Shadiq atas kisah Nabi Musa dalam ayat Alquran berikut: inni ana rabbuka (sesungguhnya aku Tuhanmu). Imam Jakfar menulis (dikutip dari Ernst):

“Dari sini bisa disimpulkan bahwa tidak pantas bagi seseorang (ketika mengalami syathh) mengatakan aku (inni ana) kecuali Allah.”

Konsep dasar Imam Jakfar tentang larangan kata “aku” yang merujuk kepada makhluk ini, masih menurut Ernst, merupakan landasan konsep fana’ bagi para sufi setelahnya. Ketika para sufi mengigau dan menghilangkan kata “aku”, maka mereka sedang mengalami fase anihiliasi atau fana’. Salah seorang sufi besar, Abu Nasr As-Sarraj mendefiniskan syathhu (igauan) sebagai “pengakuan yang meluber dari hati dan diterjemahkan oleh lisan sebagai akibat dari ekstase.” Maka ketika pengajian tersebut, Syaichona Kholil sedang mengalami fase fana’ (ekstase) sebagaimana yang dialami oleh Abu Yazid Al-Busthami atau Al-Hallaj.

Hal ini bukan merupakan sesuatu yang mengejutkan. Mengingat Syaichona sejak dasar sudah belajar tarekat Naqsyabandi kepada Syekh Abdul Adzim, seorang mursyid tarekat ternama di Bangkalan di awal abad 19. Meski beberapa keturunannya menolak afiliasi Syaichona Kholil kepada tarekat tertentu, van Bruinessen dalam Tarekat Naqsyabandiyah di Madura halaman 187 menyebutkan adanya hubungan ke-tarekat-an antara Syaichona dengan Syekh Abdul Adzim.

Dalam Surat kepada Anjing Hitam, dikisahkan bahwa Kiai As’ad pernah melihat Syaichona Kholil berzikir dalam kegelapan. Namun di tengah-tengah zikirnya, tiba-tiba muncul cahaya “biru”. Abdul Munim Kholil dalam bukunya menarik kesimpulan bahwa “biru” yang dimaksud adalah “hijau”, mengingat orang Madura menyebut warna hijau sebagai “biru”.

Dalam Tarekat Naqsyabandi, cahaya hijau yang muncul ketika berzikir ini disebut sebagai lathifahtul akhfa. Lathifatul akhfa ini, dalam kitab Al-Bahjah As-Saniyah fi Adabi Thariqah al-Aliyah al-Khalidiyah an-Naqsyabandiyah, dianggap berasal dari telapak kaki Nabi dan merupakan buah tertinggi dalam zikir. “Warna lathifatul akhfa (yang muncul ketika zikir) adalah hijau,” tulis Syekh Ibn Abdillah Al-Khani dalam kitab Al-Bahjah.

Maka bisa disimpulkan bahwa Syaichona Kholil pernah mendapat keistimewaan ketika berzikir yang mana keistimewaan ini dalam tradisi tarekat Naqsyabandi disebut lathifatul akhfa dan dianggap sebagai derajat zikir tertinggi. Maka wajar saja jika Syaichona Kholil Bangkalan sudah sampai ke taraf ekstase dan maqam fana’. Bahkan dalam beberapa sumber disebutkan bahwa Syaichona Kholil pernah mengaku sebagai wali quthb kepada muridnya yang bernama Kiai Ridlwan dan Syaichona melarang menceritakannya sebelum beliau meninggal.

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Kholili Kholil

Wakil Ketua LTN NU Bangil. Alumni Pesantren Lirboyo-Kediri. Saat ini mengajar di Pesantren Cangaan Pasuruan, Jawa Timur.

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